Glossary – A

Arousal: is the level of intensity of our behaviour. By being aroused we prepare ourselves both physiologically (e.g., increasing our heart rate) and psychologically (e.g., increasing our attention) to perform. Certain tasks are facilitated by specific arousal levels. For instance an archer needs to have a low level of activation in order to see the target properly and release the arrow accurately. On the other hand, it will be more helpful for a martial artist during a combat to be activated when facing the rival. If we think of a continuum, on one side we could be sleeping deeply, in the middle we would be awake and on the other extreme very excited. Nevertheless, arousal is neither positive nor negative but neutral. Arousal can be measured physiologically, biochemically, and through questionnaires. Relevant theories on arousal and performance are: Drive Theory, Inverted U hypothesis, Catastrophe theory, and Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF).